Resilience of Tradition: Exploring Hrangkhawl’s Time-Honoured Bone-Setting Practices

 By Sangita Hrangkhawl

Traditional means of healing have been existing long before modern medicine was introduced and is still in practice even now despite the development of modern health care sectors across the world. Nearly 10-40 % of patients in the world prefer the traditional way of healing fractures, especially in developing countries like India. Bone setting practices have its roots in most countries and may vary by name art and place. The first known written instructions for surgery and bone setting date to 1600 B.C. TBS is easily accessible, cheaper and is believed to give quick results. Modern day orthopaedics has its roots in bone setting skills from all over the world, thus the role of bonesetters cannot be ignored. This form of healing is a result of practice that’s been passed from one generation to the next without any formal training. It is usually preserved along family line with limited opportunities for non-family members to learn the practice via apprentice. According to an estimate, 10-40%of the patients with fractures and dislocations in the world are managed by unorthodox practitioners.

            Despite the advances in the modern health care, the traditional methods largely contribute as an alternative in Asia, Africa and South America due to less developed health care resources. The accurate statistics about TBS are not available for majority of the countries. It is believed that there are about 70,000 traditional healers and bonesetters in India and that they treat 60% of all the trauma. Recently the Chinese have made significant efforts to integrate traditional with modern methods in the treatment of fractures. Excellent results have been obtained for certain conditions like peri-arthritis of shoulder, tennis elbow and acute lumber sprain. In India’s perspective several authors have reported on the successful setting of fractured bones. In Gujarat, a study has investigated nineteen different successful ways of treating bone fracture. In North-eastern part of the country, there are some sporadic reports which uphold this ancient art of healing practices. The Hrangkhawl tribe residing in the present state of Tripura sought to explore the knowledge and practices of  Traditional Bone Setting (TBS) among the Hrangkhawl people of Tripura. Having said this, I will present a couple of case study to exemplify the practice of TBs in among the common Hrangkhawl men and women.

Case study: 1.

The first person interviewed is an 84 year old  male named Krishna Lon Hrangkhawl  from Touikoi Joydhan village of district Khowai, who has now retired from the profession and passed on  the legacy to his youngest son .  He claimed to have acquired the knowledge through various dreams when one of his sons met an accident and had fractured bones. Hence, credited his dream as the main source of attaining the knowledge.  He never had any formal training. During his 26 years of practice he never had any records of death but did face complications due to the lack of modern medical infrastructures. He had treated all cases of fractures from different classes of people. However the medicinal herbs used were never disclosed to anyone because of certain beliefs. The prices of the treatments were made depending on the severity of the wound and sometimes considering the financial condition of the patients. Some payments were made in kind. The TBS testified that the highest payment he ever received was Rs.700/- during his years of practice. He never had any apprentice other than his son Jarmajoy Hrangkhawl, who took the noble profession after the retirement of his father. He is a thirty-year-old male who had been practicing TBS for thirteen years. He has had his formal education till secondary level when he decided to work as a TBS. He acquired his skills from his father and few by attending training and workshops. He treats all kinds of fractures following the footsteps of his father.

            Depending on the presentation, he first checks the medical records (x-ray in most cases) of the patients (Fig.1) and examines the wound. He cleans the wound with lukewarm water. He then give tetanus injection and manage the wounds. After the wound has been given the needed attention, he manipulates the bone to reduce the fracture to its anatomical position and then wraps the medicinal herb paste with a bandage round it. He uses areca leaf to strengthen the bandage around the wound (Fig .2).

He has treated more than 500 patients till date with no death records. Having had formal training in the field, he also has knowledge in providing basic modern medical supplements to his patients. He affirmed that all classes of people come for treatment and affirmed that he would refer his patients to the hospital if he encountered any complications. He claimed to have received assistance from his patients who helped him in tending the wounds of other patients following his instructions. He was open to receiving assistance from the government or any organization to improve the quality of his services through provisions of beds, drugs and infrastructure facilities in a better location with basic equipments required treating the patients.

Case study: 2.

A 73 year old male named Debendra Hrangkhawl from Debthang village of district Khowai, have been practicing TBS for 50 years now. He had received basic education. He claimed to have acquired few skills from his father-in-law while assisting him. He, later, expertise his skills through dreams and visions. His area of treatment covers not only repairing bones but also in various other fields such as EFB (Esophageal Foreign Body) and muscle strains. He had treated 70-80 patients of all classes of people. He has had patients referred to him from hospitals through family members, friends and former clients. He never had to refer any patients to hospitals as he never recorded any deaths or complications. He suggested in preserving herbs of any kind due to their medicinal purposes. He also seems to have cultivated few herbs for preservation. He affirmed that every wound has to be treated with a mixture of twelve different species of herbs. Only few wounds are exceptional. He first diagnoses the wound or check the medical reports (if any). He proceeds to wash the wound and then apply coconut oil. He later manipulates the bone and wraps it with herbal medicine paste. Once the affected area has been treated, it should be kept a distance away from impure atmosphere. The bandages are changed frequently to keep the affected area clean. He confirmed to have few apprentices and was ready to have more. He did not possess any clinic and treated his patients at his personal home. He could not foresee any improvement of relationship between TBS and orthodox health staff because of the differences in acquiring their skills and knowledge. However, he was open to receiving assistance from the government to provide infrastructures to improve the quality of the service.

            In the likes of what I have been discussing above, I do believe there are such many un-explored and un-ventured indigenous medical practices (either kept closed, tabooed or even unknown to us) forgotten, trampled or even negated owing to the deficient health care services in the developing nations, the role of TBS in health care delivery can’t be ignored. A study funded by the World Health Organization’s Division of Strengthening Health Services concluding that incorporating trained traditional health practitioners in primary health care programs could be cost effective in providing essential and culturally relevant health services to the communities in the developing countries. The practice of traditional bone setting in developing countries has partly rooted in erroneous socio-cultural beliefs in many of these societies. Particularly, there are pervading sentiments and beliefs that such treatment more effective than orthodox medicine. Hence, our cultural heritage, age-old practices and the likes needs to be kept on visit to sustain our identity and fashion our customs.   

Sangita Hrangkhawl is Assistant Professor in Department of History, Michael Madhusudan Dutta College, Sabroom.

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115 thoughts on “Resilience of Tradition: Exploring Hrangkhawl’s Time-Honoured Bone-Setting Practices”

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    Подготовка: перед началом работы необходимо защитить мебель и другие предметы от пыли и грязи, а также удалить плинтусы.
    Шлифовка: с помощью шлифовальной машины удаляется старый лак и верхний повреждённый слой древесины.
    Шпатлёвка: после шлифовки поверхность паркета шпатлюется для заполнения трещин и выравнивания поверхности.
    Грунтовка: перед нанесением лака паркет грунтуется для улучшения адгезии и защиты от плесени и грибка.
    Нанесение лака: лак наносится в несколько слоёв с промежуточной шлифовкой между ними.
    Полировка: после нанесения последнего слоя лака паркет полируется для придания поверхности блеска и гладкости.
    Циклёвка паркета позволяет обновить внешний вид пола, восстановить его структуру и продлить срок службы.
    Сайт: ykladka-parketa.ru
    Циклевка паркета

  77. Лендинг-пейдж — это одностраничный сайт, предназначенный для рекламы и продажи товаров или услуг, а также для сбора контактных данных потенциальных клиентов. Вот несколько причин, почему лендинг-пейдж важен для бизнеса:
    Увеличение узнаваемости компании. Лендинг-пейдж позволяет представить компанию и её продукты или услуги в выгодном свете, что способствует росту узнаваемости бренда.
    Повышение продаж. Заказать лендинг можно здесь – 1landingpage.ru Одностраничные сайты позволяют сосредоточиться на конкретных предложениях и акциях, что повышает вероятность совершения покупки.
    Оптимизация SEO-показателей. Лендинг-пейдж создаются с учётом ключевых слов и фраз, что улучшает позиции сайта в результатах поиска и привлекает больше целевых посетителей.
    Привлечение новой аудитории. Одностраничные сайты могут использоваться для продвижения новых продуктов или услуг, а также для привлечения внимания к определённым кампаниям или акциям.
    Расширение клиентской базы. Лендинг-пейдж собирают контактные данные потенциальных клиентов, что позволяет компании поддерживать связь с ними и предлагать дополнительные услуги или товары.
    Простота генерации лидов. Лендинг-пейдж предоставляют краткую и понятную информацию о продуктах или услугах, что облегчает процесс принятия решения для потенциальных клиентов.
    Сбор персональных данных. Лендинг-пейдж позволяют собирать информацию о потенциальных клиентах, такую как email-адрес, имя и контактные данные, что помогает компании лучше понимать свою аудиторию и предоставлять более персонализированные услуги.
    Улучшение поискового трафика. Лендинг-пейдж создаются с учётом определённых поисковых запросов, что позволяет привлекать больше целевых посетителей на сайт.
    Эффективное продвижение новой продукции. Лендинг-пейдж можно использовать для продвижения новых товаров или услуг, что позволяет привлечь внимание потенциальных клиентов и стимулировать их к покупке.
    Лёгкий процесс принятия решений. Лендинг-пейдж содержат только самую необходимую информацию, что упрощает процесс принятия решения для потенциальных клиентов.
    В целом, лендинг-пейдж являются мощным инструментом для продвижения бизнеса, увеличения продаж и привлечения новых клиентов.
    Заказать лендинг

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